Crystalline silicon is steel gray, belongs to atomic crystal, hard and shiny, with semiconductor nature. The chemical nature of the silicon is lively, at high temperatures can be combined with oxygen and other elements, do not dissolve in water, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and lye for made in alloys such as ferrosilicon, silicon, monocrystalline Silicon is an important semiconductor material used for manufacturing high-power transistors, rectifiers, solar cells, etc. Silicon is widely distributed in nature, containing about 27.6% of the Earth's crust, mainly in the form of silica and silicates. The crystalline silicon is dark blue, very brittle, and is a typical semiconductor. The chemical nature is very stable. At room temperature, except the hydrofluoric acid, it is difficult to react with other substances.
The high purity single crystalline silicon is an important semiconductor material. A trace amount of a Group IIIA element incorporated in the single crystal silicon, forming a p-type silicon semiconductor; incorporation of a trace amount of the element of Group VA, the formation of the n-type and p-type semiconductor combination, can be made of the solar cells, turn the radiation into electricity. In the development of energy resources, it is a promising material.
As the surveys by metal powder supplier, silicon is important materials for cermet and astronautical. Sintered mixture of ceramic and metal, made of metal-ceramic composites, it is high temperature rich toughness, can be cut, not only inherited the respective advantages of metal and ceramic, but also to make up for both birth defects. Can be applied to the manufacture of military weapons, the first space shuttle 'Columbia' can withstand high-speed walk through the friction heat generated by the dense atmosphere, thanks to its thirty-one thousand silicon watts shell mosaic project.
It can be used for optical fiber communications, the latest modern means of communication. Drawn out of a high transparency with a pure silica glass fiber, a laser in the passage of the glass fiber, the total reflection of numerous onward transmission, instead of the cumbersome cable. The high capacity of optical fiber communications, glass fibers like a hair can transmit 256 telephone channels at the same time, also without electricity, magnetic interference, and are not afraid of wiretapping, with a high degree of confidentiality. Optical fiber communication will make revolutionary changes in the lives of the human beings in the 21st century.
Due to the unique structure of the organic silicon, with both the performance of the organic material and inorganic material, having a low surface tension, low viscosity-temperature coefficient, and high compressibility, and high gas permeability basic properties, and having a high temperature resistance, electrical insulation resistance, oxidation stability resistance, weather resistance, flame retardant, hydrophobic, corrosion-resistant, non-toxic, odorless and physiologically inert and other outstanding features, widely used in the aerospace, electrical and electronics, construction, transportation, chemical industry, textile, food, light industry, medical industry, The silicone is mainly used in sealing, bonding, lubrication, coatings, surfactants, mold release, anti-foaming, defoaming, waterproof, moisture-proof, inert fillers. With the continued growth of the number and variety of organic silicon, the applications is continue to widen, the formation of new chemical materials sector is unique product system, many varieties can not be replaced by other chemicals but essential.