In this kind of marking process permanent marks
For example in metal products permanent marks can be made in the form of intricate logos of the company which manufactures them, various identification marks like batch number , serial number and at time even bar coding is done with the help of lasers.
For other kind of material a more traditional heat firing method was used before which used to spoil the surface of the material due to the fact that it was used on substances like plastic, rubber etc. which react very quickly to high temperature, but now such complex surfaces also can be marked in whatever manner the manufacturer wants as lasers do not bring about any changes to their basic structure and also it can be done in a very precise and intricate manner.
Some particular types of Lasers used in this kind of a process are:
Carbon Dioxide laser
Diode-pumped solid-state laser etc.
Not only this the laser marked materials are also highly durable as there is no significant change to the actual material of the product and also any kinds f abrasions , fissures , resistance to chemical exposure which acids etc do not affect the actual substance.
Some particular applications of the laser marking process are:
They can be used to mark natural material like wood, rubber, hardwood etc can be engraved using very low intensity laser beams.
Markings on stone, glass and other such material where the marking needs to be done very carefully was used to be done using techniques like sandblasting, diamond tipped tool bits etc. has now been replaced using laser beams as they are way more precise and can be done more intricately.
It is also used to do engraving on flexographic plates and cylinder, also a wide variety of rubber plates, engraving is also done on polymers used for photographic purposes and other kind of novel metal alloys.
Thus laser marking provides for manufacturing concerns a very specific and industry benchmark way of marking out substance and at low costs too.