Bladder stones may have been commonly heard but


These urinary stones are made up of different substances like struvite, urates, weddelite, apatite, whewellite, cystine, xanthine etc. The history of bladder stones traces back to Egypt where the procedure of removing bladder stone got its name. The term of procedure Lithoclastic cystotomy is based on the name of the stone cutter in Alexandria, Egypt, by the name of Ammonius Lithotomos. The procedure of lithotomy is derived from stone cutting known as lithotomia. Lithotomus was known to break make instruments which broke and extracted bladder stones. As Celsus gave the first description of the procedure of lithotomy, the operation has ever since been known by his name as the Celsian method.

The signs of the presence of bladder stone are first and foremost of concentrated urine or dehydration. In such conditions, the bladder stones are formed by materials like crystallization of materials like magnesium or calcium and they are of different shapes and sizes. Some stones do not give out any symptoms and can be incidentally discovered on a plain radiograph while some give out symptoms like abdominal and back pain, frequent and difficult urination, and painful urination with blood or fever. One may also experience shivers and chills with vomiting and nausea.

There can be one or many stones in the bladder of varying shapes, sizes and textures. Men are generally prone to bladder stones, especially those with prostate enlargement. Large prostate tresses on urethra which makes it difficult to pass urine and the collected, stagnant urine has minerals which start precipitating. Others who are potential for bladder stones are ones with spinal cord injury, some nerve damage or paralysis.

The best way of prevention of bladder stones is through the intake of plenty of fluids, specially the juices with citrates. But if the bladder stones are diagnosed, they require treatment like the fragments can be achieved by a cystoscope and the urologist can use laser lithotripsy or ultrasonic energy to fragment the stones which can be then flushed out from the bladder. Some stones are very big and need open cystotomy wherein it is removed manually.

It is interesting to know such basic facts about bladder stone.

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